トルコの医療、規制及び償還動向

◆英語タイトル:CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape - Turkey
◆商品コード:GDHC0066CHR
◆発行会社(調査会社):GlobalData
◆発行日:2014年8月1日
◆ページ数:252
◆レポート言語:英語
◆レポート形式:PDF
◆納品方法:Eメール
◆調査対象地域:トルコ
◆産業分野:製薬、医療
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【レポートの概要】

CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Turkey

Summary

GlobalData, the industry analysis specialist, has released its latest report, “CountryFocus: Healthcare, Regulatory and Reimbursement Landscape – Turkey”. The report is an essential source of information on and analysis of the healthcare, regulatory and reimbursement landscape in Turkey. It identifies the key trends in the country’s healthcare market and provides insights into its demographic, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape and healthcare infrastructure. Most importantly, the report provides valuable insights into the trends and segmentation of its pharmaceutical and medical device markets. It uses data and information sourced from proprietary databases, secondary research, and in-house analysis by GlobalData’s team of industry experts.

Turkey’s population stood at approximately 76.7 million in 2013, having grown at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 1.4%, from 2008. The implementation of the Health Transformation Program (Saglikta Donus, um Programi, HTP) resulted in social security reforms that were aimed at improving the universal health coverage. The available infrastructure for healthcare industries and the high number of healthcare institutions makes Turkey an attractive location for the manufacture and marketing of pharmaceutical products.

The government is trying to increase pharmaceutical R&D in Turkey, and in 2012, it introduced a new investment incentives program that had four basic schemes to increase foreign investment. The pharmaceutical market was worth approximately $12.5 billion, in 2012, and was the sixth-largest pharmaceutical market in Europe. It is set to grow at a CAGR of 7.3% from 2008 to reach $21.5 billion in 2020. The medical device market was valued at approximately $1.9 billion in 2008 and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 4.7% to reach an estimated $3.3 billion in 2020. These positive growth trends can be primarily attributed to –
- An increasing elderly population
- Universal health coverage
- Government initiatives

Scope

The report provides information on the healthcare, regulatory, and reimbursement landscape in Turkey, and includes –
- An overview of the pharmaceutical and medical device markets, comprising market size, segmentation, and key drivers and barriers
- Profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the pharmaceutical market: Abdi Ibrahim, Novartis, Sanofi, Bilim and Pfizer; and profiles and SWOT analyses of the major players in the medical device market: Siemens Healthcare, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Essilor International, GE healthcare, and Fresenius Medical Care
- Insightful review of the reimbursement and regulatory landscape, with analysis covering details of the country’s healthcare reimbursement process, regulatory agencies and the approval processes for new drugs and medical devices
- Detailed analysis of the political and economic environment, covering economic indicators, demographics, healthcare infrastructure and healthcare expenditure
- An overview of the opportunities for and challenges to growth in the healthcare market

Reasons to buy

This report will enhance your decision-making capability by allowing you to –
- Develop business strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Turkey’s healthcare market
- Drive revenues by understanding the key trends, reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical market segments, and companies likely to affect Turkey’s healthcare market in the future
- Formulate effective sales and marketing strategies by understanding the competitive landscape and analyzing the performance of various competitors
- Organize your sales and marketing efforts by identifying the market categories and segments that present the best opportunities for consolidation, investment, and strategic partnerships
- Identify, understand, and capitalize on the opportunities and challenges in Turkey’s healthcare market

【レポートの目次】

1 Table of Contents
1 Table of Contents 7
1.1 List of Tables 10
1.2 List of Figures 15
2 Introduction 19
2.1 GlobalData Report Guidance 19
3 Overview of the Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Markets 20
3.1 Pharmaceutical Market 20
3.1.1 Market Overview 20
3.1.2 Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 23
3.1.3 Supply Channels 25
3.1.4 Market Segments 26
3.1.5 Overview of Top Five Disease Areas 31
3.1.6 Major Players 34
3.2 Medical Device Market 70
3.2.1 Market Overview 70
3.2.2 Overview of Top Five Segments 72
3.2.3 Diagnostic Market 85
3.2.4 Major Players 87
3.3 Market Drivers and Barriers 119
3.3.1 Drivers 119
3.3.2 Barriers 120
4 Market Access 122
4.1 Reimbursement and Payer Landscape 122
4.1.1 Overview of Healthcare System 122
4.1.2 Reimbursement Process 125
4.1.3 Overview of Insurance Providers 128
4.1.4 Patient Share in Healthcare Spending 132
4.1.5 Price Trend in Healthcare Services 133
4.1.6 Pricing Policies 134
4.2 Regulatory Landscape 136
4.2.1 Overview of Regulatory Agencies 136
4.2.2 Market Authorization Procedure for Pharmaceutical Products 139
4.2.3 Market Authorization Procedure for Medical Devices 143
4.2.4 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical and Medical Device Manufacturing 145
4.2.5 Licensing Process for Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports 145
4.2.6 Intellectual Property Rights 146
4.2.7 Clinical Trial Regulations 148
4.2.8 Pharmaceutical Advertising Regulations 150
4.2.9 Pharmacy Regulations 151
4.2.10 Labeling and Packaging Regulations 151
5 Country Analysis 153
5.1 Political Environment 153
5.1.1 Political Structure 153
5.1.2 Analysis of the Current Political Environment 155
5.1.3 Healthcare Policy Initiatives 156
5.2 Economic Landscape 157
5.3 Economic Indicators 158
5.3.1 Gross Domestic Product 158
5.3.2 Gross National Income 162
5.3.3 Inflation 163
5.3.4 Currency Exchange Rate 167
5.3.5 Foreign Direct Investment 168
5.3.6 Foreign Exchange Reserves 169
5.3.7 Trade Balance 170
5.3.8 General Government Structural Balance 173
5.3.9 General Government Net Debt 174
5.3.10 Major Industries 176
5.4 Demographics 177
5.4.1 Population 177
5.4.2 Education and Literacy 195
5.4.3 Employment 198
5.4.4 Disease Burden 199
5.5 Healthcare Infrastructure 203
5.5.1 Healthcare Facilities 203
5.5.2 Healthcare Parameters 207
5.5.3 Environmental Health 211
5.5.4 Healthcare Personnel 214
5.6 Healthcare Expenditure 219
5.6.1 Overview 219
5.6.2 Major Components of Healthcare Spending 220
5.6.3 Public and Private Sector Share 222
5.6.4 Spending in Healthcare, R&D 224
5.7 Trade Associations 225
5.7.1 Turkish Pharmacists’ Association 225
5.7.2 Pharmaceutical Manufacturer’s Association of Turkey 226
5.7.3 Turkish Confederation of Employer Associations 226
5.8 Trade Fairs 226
6 Opportunities and Challenges 228
6.1 Opportunities 228
6.2 Challenges 228
7 Appendix 230
7.1 Abbreviations 230
7.2 Bibliography 234
7.3 Research Methodology 249
7.3.1 Coverage 250
7.3.2 Secondary Research 250
7.3.3 Forecasts 251
7.3.4 Expert Panel 251
7.4 Disclaimer 251

1.1 List of Tables
Table 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 22
Table 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 23
Table 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports ($m), 2008-2013 24
Table 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Pharmaceutical Mark-Ups (%), 2009 25
Table 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Generics Market, Drug Consumption by Volume (%), 2008-2013 27
Table 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Biotechnology Market, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 30
Table 7: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Top Five Therapeutic Areas, Drug Consumption (%), 2012 31
Table 8: Pharmaceutical Market, Major Products, Abdi İbrahim, 2014 35
Table 9: Pharmaceutical Market, Pfizer, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 41
Table 10: Pharmaceutical Market, Pfizer, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014* 42
Table 11: Pharmaceutical Market, Sanofi, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn), 2013 49
Table 12: Pharmaceutical Market, Sanofi, Global, Late-Stage Pipeline, 2014* 50
Table 13: Pharmaceutical Market, Novartis, Global, Major Products, Revenue ($bn) and Annual Growth (%), 2013 55
Table 14: Pharmaceutical Market, Novartis, Global, Planned Filings, 2014-2018* 56
Table 15: Pharmaceutical Market, New Products, Bilim, 2014 65
Table 16: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 71
Table 17: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 72
Table 18: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Ophthalmic Devices ($m), 2008-2013 74
Table 19: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Ophthalmic Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 74
Table 20: Medical Device Market, Turkey, In Vitro Diagnostics ($m), 2008-2013 76
Table 21: Medical Device Market, Turkey, In Vitro Diagnostics, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 77
Table 22: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Nephrology and Urology Devices ($m), 2008-2013 78
Table 23: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Nephrology and Urology Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 79
Table 24: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Imaging Market ($m), 2008-2013 81
Table 25: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Imaging Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 82
Table 26: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Cardiovascular Devices ($m), 2008-2013 83
Table 27: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Cardiovascular Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, 2012 84
Table 28: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 85
Table 29: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 86
Table 30: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Major Medical Device Companies Revenue, 2012 87
Table 31: Medical Device Market, Fresenius Medical Care, Global, Major Products, 2014 89
Table 32: Medical Device Market , Roche, Global, Major Products, 2014 95
Table 33: Healthcare System, Turkey, Discount Rates for Reimbursed Drugs at Retail Level (%), 2008 126
Table 34: Healthcare System, Turkey, Discount Rates for Reimbursed Drugs at Retail Level (%), 2008 127
Table 35: Healthcare System, Turkey, Type of Insurance and Premium Contribution Rates (%), 2011 131
Table 36: Healthcare Spending, Turkey, Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 133
Table 37: Market Access, Turkey, Change in Average Price of Healthcare Services (%), 2008-2013 134
Table 38: Pricing Policies, Turkey, Reference Pricing System, 2014 135
Table 39: Pricing Policies, Turkey, Wholesaler and Pharmacist Profit Margins (%), 2014 135
Table 40: Market Access, Turkey, Patent Fees, 2014 147
Table 41: Market Access, Turkey, Trademark Fees, 2014 148
Table 42: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 159
Table 43: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 160
Table 44: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 161
Table 45: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 162
Table 46: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 163
Table 47: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 164
Table 48: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 165
Table 49: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 166
Table 50: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Currency Exchange Rate (TRY/$), 2008-2013 167
Table 51: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 168
Table 52: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 169
Table 53: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Imports of Goods and Services ($m), 2008-2013 171
Table 54: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Exports of Goods and Services ($m), 2008-2013 172
Table 55: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 174
Table 56: Economic Indicators, Turkey, General Government Net Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 175
Table 57: Economic Indicators, Turkey, General Government Net Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 175
Table 58: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Major Industries by Contribution to Gross Domestic Product, 2013 177
Table 59: Demographics, Turkey, Population (million), 2008-2013 178
Table 60: Demographics, Turkey, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 179
Table 61: Demographics, Turkey, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share (%), 2008-2013 180
Table 62: Demographics, Turkey, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share Forecast (%), 2014-2020 181
Table 63: Demographics, Turkey, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 183
Table 64: Demographics, Turkey, Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 183
Table 65: Demographics, Turkey, Births (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 184
Table 66: Demographics, Turkey, Mortality (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 186
Table 67: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Mortality, 2013 187
Table 68: Demographics, Turkey, Children <5 Years Age, Mortality Rate (%), 2008-2013 188
Table 69: Demographics, Turkey, Immunization Rate (%), 2008-2013 190
Table 70: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Male Mortality, 2013 191
Table 71: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Female Mortality, 2013 192
Table 72: Demographics, Turkey, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 193
Table 73: Demographics, Turkey, Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), 2008-2013 195
Table 74: Demographics, Turkey, Gross Schooling Ratio by Level of Education (%), 2012-2014 197
Table 75: Demographics, Turkey, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 198
Table 76: Demographics, Turkey, Distribution of Employment by Sectors (%), 2013 199
Table 77: Demographics, Turkey, Number of Cases per Disease as Diagnosed by Physician, Rate (%), 2012 201
Table 78: Demographics, Turkey, Major Diseases, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (per 100,000 Population), 2004 202
Table 79: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Establishments, 2008-2013 204
Table 80: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Establishments, 2008-2013 205
Table 81: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Diagnostic Equipment (per 1,000,000 Population), 2008-2013 207
Table 82: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 208
Table 83: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Beds by Sector, 2008-2013 209
Table 84: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Doctors (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 210
Table 85: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, PM10 (µg/m3), 2008-2013 212
Table 86: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, CO2 Emissions (Million Metric Tons), 2008-2013 214
Table 87: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Nurses (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 216
Table 88: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Pharmacists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 217
Table 89: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Dentists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 218
Table 90: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Midwives (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 219
Table 91: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 220
Table 92: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2012 222
Table 93: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 223
Table 94: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Higher Education Expenditure on R&D by Field of Science (%), 2012 225
Table 95: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Major Healthcare Trade Fairs, 2014-2015 227

1.2 List of Figures
Figure 1: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 22
Figure 2: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 23
Figure 3: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Pharmaceutical Exports and Imports ($m), 2008-2013 24
Figure 4: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Supply Channel, 2014 25
Figure 5: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Generics Market, Drug Consumption by Volume (%), 2008-2013 27
Figure 6: Pharmaceutical Market, Turkey, Biotechnology Market, Revenue ($m), 2008-2013 30
Figure 7: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 71
Figure 8: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 72
Figure 9: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Ophthalmic Devices ($m), 2008-2013 73
Figure 10: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Ophthalmic Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 74
Figure 11: Medical Device Market, Turkey, In Vitro Diagnostics ($m), 2008-2013 75
Figure 12: Medical Device Market, Turkey, In Vitro Diagnostics, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 76
Figure 13: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Nephrology and Urology Devices ($m), 2008-2013 78
Figure 14: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Nephrology and Urology Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 79
Figure 15: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Imaging Market ($m), 2008-2013 80
Figure 16: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Imaging Market, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 81
Figure 17: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Cardiovascular Devices ($m), 2008-2013 83
Figure 18: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Cardiovascular Devices, Sales Trend for Major Players, Revenue ($m), 2008-2012 84
Figure 19: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Market, Revenue ($bn), 2008-2013 85
Figure 20: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Diagnostic Market, Revenue Forecast ($bn), 2014-2020 86
Figure 21: Medical Device Market, Turkey, Major Medical Device Companies Revenue ($m), 2012 87
Figure 22: Healthcare Market, Turkey, Drivers and Barriers, 2014 121
Figure 23: Healthcare System, Turkey, Organization of the Social Security Institution, 2011 124
Figure 24: Healthcare System, Turkey, Reimbursement Process, 2011 127
Figure 25: Healthcare System, Turkey, Social Security System, 2011 131
Figure 26: Healthcare Spending, Turkey, Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (%), 2008-2013 133
Figure 27: Market Access, Turkey, Change in Average Price of Healthcare Services (%), 2008-2013 134
Figure 28: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product per Capita ($), 2008-2013 159
Figure 29: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Forecast ($), 2014-2020 160
Figure 30: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth (%), 2008-2013 161
Figure 31: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross Domestic Product Annual Growth Forecast (%), 2014-2020 162
Figure 32: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Gross National Income per Capita ($), 2008-2013 163
Figure 33: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Index, 2008-2013 164
Figure 34: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Index Forecast, 2014-2020 165
Figure 35: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Average Consumer Price Annual Change (%), 2008-2013 166
Figure 36: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Currency Exchange Rate (TRY/$), 2008-2013 167
Figure 37: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Foreign Direct Investment ($bn), 2008-2013 168
Figure 38: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Foreign Exchange Reserves ($bn), 2008-2013 169
Figure 39: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Imports of Goods and Services ($m), 2008-2013 171
Figure 40: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Exports of Goods and Services ($m), 2008-2013 172
Figure 41: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Government Structural Balance ($bn), 2008-2013 173
Figure 42: Economic Indicators, Turkey, General Government Net Debt (% of GDP), 2008-2013 174
Figure 43: Economic Indicators, Turkey, General Government Net Debt Forecast (% of GDP), 2014-2020 175
Figure 44: Economic Indicators, Turkey, Major Industries by Contribution to Gross Domestic Product, 2013 176
Figure 45: Demographics, Turkey, Population (million), 2008-2013 178
Figure 46: Demographics, Turkey, Population Forecast (million), 2014-2020 179
Figure 47: Demographics, Turkey, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share (%), 2008-2013 180
Figure 48: Demographics, Turkey, Population, Urban and Rural Population Share Forecast (%), 2014-2020 181
Figure 49: Demographics, Turkey, Population Distribution by Age Group (%), 2008-2013 182
Figure 50: Demographics, Turkey, Population Distribution by Age Group Forecast (%), 2014-2020 183
Figure 51: Demographics, Turkey, Births (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 184
Figure 52: Demographics, Turkey, Mortality (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 185
Figure 53: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Mortality, 2013 186
Figure 54: Demographics, Turkey, Children <5 Years Age, Mortality Rate (%), 2008-2013 188
Figure 55: Demographics, Turkey, Immunization Rate (%), 2008-2013 189
Figure 56: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Male Mortality, 2013 191
Figure 57: Demographics, Turkey, Major Causes of Female Mortality, 2013 192
Figure 58: Demographics, Turkey, Gender Ratio (M/F), 2008-2013 193
Figure 59: Demographics, Turkey, Life Expectancy at Birth (Years), 2008-2013 194
Figure 60: Demographics, Turkey, Gross Schooling Ratio by Level of Education (%), 2012-2014 197
Figure 61: Demographics, Turkey, Unemployment Rate (%), 2008-2013 198
Figure 62: Demographics, Turkey, Distribution of Employment by Sectors (%), 2013 199
Figure 63: Demographics, Turkey, Number of Cases per Disease as Diagnosed by Physician, Rate (%), 2012 200
Figure 64: Demographics, Turkey, Major Diseases, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (per 100,000 Population), 2004 202
Figure 65: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital, 2008-2013 204
Figure 66: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Establishments, 2008-2013 205
Figure 67: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Diagnostic Equipment (per 1,000,000 Population), 2008-2013 206
Figure 68: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Beds (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 208
Figure 69: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Hospital Beds by Sector, 2008-2013 209
Figure 70: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Doctors (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 210
Figure 71: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, PM10 (µg/m3), 2008-2013 212
Figure 72: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, CO2 Emissions (Million Metric Tons), 2008-2013 214
Figure 73: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Nurses (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 215
Figure 74: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Pharmacists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 216
Figure 75: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Dentists (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 217
Figure 76: Healthcare Infrastructure, Turkey, Midwives (per 1,000 Population), 2008-2013 218
Figure 77: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Healthcare Expenditure (% of GDP), 2008-2013 220
Figure 78: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Primary Healthcare Expenditure, Current Health Expenditure by Mode of Production (%), 2012 221
Figure 79: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Healthcare Expenditure, Public-Private Share (%), 2008-2013 223
Figure 80: Healthcare Expenditure, Turkey, Higher Education Expenditure on R&D by Field of Science (%), 2012 225
Figure 81: Healthcare Market, Turkey, Opportunities and Challenges, 2014 229

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